To answer this question, it is important to first understand what the second equivalence point is. The second equivalence point is when the base has completely reacted with all of the acid that was originally present in a solution. In order for this to happen, there must be an excess of base and acid. Once this happens, we can calculate the volume at which these two substances are in equilibrium by using Ka = Kb · Vc / Va · Vb . This will allow us to find out what added volume of base does the second equivalence point occur? Consider a solution with an initial pH of roughly 11.100 and a Ka value for the base, Kb = 0.0014 M-at 14 degrees Celsius · L. First, we will calculate how much acid there was originally in this system by performing the following equation: Va / Vc – VA/Vb X 100 . If we plug all these numbers into that calculation for our example problem above, then it turns out to be about 0.0243 M which is equivalent to 243 ppm H+. Now let’s find out what volume of base would allow us to reach equilibrium! In order to do this, we need to know at what point the solutions are equilibrated or when they have reached their second

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