At the Application Layer, our IP, ICMP and ARP protocols are responsible for delivering data packets across the Internet. These three protocols operate between Network Access and Presentation Layers of the OSI Model. The IP protocol is used to determine which network node or host should receive a packet. The ICMP protocol can be used for diagnostics and error reporting purposes whereas ARP helps resolve IP addresses to media access control (MAC) addresses by querying a local address table when broadcasting on an Ethernet LAN segment. Long-form content: We need protocols that allow data packets to travel from one computer system to another, without the need of human interaction—in other words, we must have software “agents” running in each machine who will take care of getting our messages where they are supposed to go. Here’s how this happens with Internet Protocols: IP does not live at any particular layer; it sits above all

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