The number of electrons in an atom’s valence shell is determined by the number of protons. For example, atom x has 17 protons and it would have 11 electrons in its valence shell. The number of electrons in an atom’s valence shell is determined by the number of protons. For example, atom x has 17 protons and it would have 11 electrons in its valence shell. A hydrogen atom has one electron in its outermost orbital called a “K” orbital. The first ionization energy for this type of orbit is 1312 kJ/mol (kilojoules per mole) at STP conditions (standard temperature and pressure). When you remove that last electron from the K-orbital there are no more electrons left to fill the other orbitals so they become empty as well, which means the second ionization energy will be higher than just removing one electron. A hydrogen molecule contains two hydrogen atoms so it would have two electrons in its valence shell. In order for the second ionization energy to be 1312 kJ/mol, the molecule must contain at least 17 protons which corresponds to a hydrogen atom with one proton and 16 neutrons. Since there are no more electrons left after removing one electron from an orbit like that found in hydrogen molecules, you need enough protons on each side of the equation (i.e., as many as possible) to create a stable system where there is only one unpaired electron per orbital type. If you wanted both ions first formed by adding or taking away electrons from H-H bonds to exist simultaneously then you would need all other types of orbits filled up

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